for South Carolina Authorized NPIP Testing Agent Candidates
THE NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN – NPIP
SC NPIP Contact: Dr. Julie Helm, 803-788-2260, firstname.lastname@example.org
SC NPIP program presentation at: http://www.clemson.edu/public/lph/ahp/poultry_npiptesterspage.html
Becoming an Authorized NPIP Testing Agent (SC NPIP Tester) is an optional part of the SC NPIP & Small Flock Workshop. For those interested, read this study material in order to take the test during the workshop.
The Nation Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) is a voluntary program administered by the USDA, the various states, and the poultry industry. Begun as a national program in 1935, it was designed to improve the poultry industry by controlling and eradicating Pullorum disease and fowl typhoid from poultry flocks, improving the selection of breeders and sanitation practices. Participation was, and still is, voluntary; the incentive to participate being the use of official NPIP logos on advertising and containers and the ability to ship product across state lines or internationally easier. Although still a voluntary program, state and federal regulations make it difficult for a poultry business of any size to operate without participation.
The program has been so successful that Pullorum and fowl typhoid infections are rare, and many states, such as South Carolina, are proud to claim the status of a Pullorum Clean State. To retain clean status, laws are necessary that require all poultry entering or located within the state to be “U.S. Pullorum Clean” or equivalent or enter the state with an interstate veterinary inspection certificate (iCVI) showing a negative Pullorum-Typhoid test within 30 days. All poultry going to exhibit must be “U.S. Pullorum Clean” or tested negative within 90 days. There is no NPIP or state requirement for poultry moving to immediate slaughter.
Because of the success of the NPIP, only primary breeder flocks need to be tested every year. Commercial multiplier flocks supplying eggs to “U.S. Pullorum Clean” hatcheries have been allowed to reduce annual testing to a zero level. All hatching eggs and day-old poultry moving in commerce must be “U.S. Pullorum Clean”. Started poultry (birds that have been fed and watered) may retain their NPIP status up to 6 months of age if they are retained on a NPIP participating farm.
An Authorized NPIP Testing Agent is a person licensed by the state plan to perform Pullorum-Typhoid tests that can be performed in the field or to obtain samples for laboratory testing only within the state of South Carolina. Other diseases (mycoplasmas, other salmonellas, and avian influenza) have been included in the program and the Authorized NPIP Testing Agents may obtain samples for these tests as well.
Salmonella are a very large group of intestinal bacteria – there are over 2,300 different types. A few of the Salmonella can cause specific diseases in certain animals or humans, for example, 20-40 specific types of Salmonella can cause disease in poultry.
Clinical signs in poultry with Salmonella infections can vary, including no signs of disease, diarrhea in young poultry, high death rate in young poultry, decreased egg production and hatchability, and decreased feed and water consumption. The birds can be infection by Salmonella through bird to bird contact, fecal contamination, hatchery contamination, and through the egg from the breeder flock to the chicks.
Pullorum (caused by Salmonella pullorum) and fowl typhoid (caused by Salmonella gallinarium) are specific Salmonella diseases of poultry in chickens, turkeys, game birds (quail, pheasant, peafowl, partridge, grouse, guineas), and domesticated ducks and geese, but not pigeons or doves. These two Salmonella diseases do not affect people. Pullorum-Typhoid infections have essentially been eradicated from the commercial poultry industry through intense testing of breeder flocks and depopulation of any positive flocks. However, reservoir birds (backyard flocks) still keep the disease alive and a threat to all of South Carolina’s diverse poultry industries.
Other types of Salmonella that have similar antigens to Pullorum-Typhoid will stimulate the production of antibodies in chickens that will cause a positive test. This is why further laboratory is necessary to determine if the poultry are truly infected with Pullorum-Typhoid.
MYCOPLASMA – MG, MS, MM
Mycoplasma is an organism that is similar to bacteria. It is also similar to Salmonella in that it can be spread through the egg from the infected breeder flock to the chicks, bird to bird contact, fecal contamination, and hatchery contamination. Clinical signs in infected birds can include respiratory illness, decreased egg production and hatchability There are several types of mycoplasmas. The following types are included in the NPIP program: M. gallisepticum (MG), M. synoviae (MS), and M. meleagridis (MM).
Avian influenza is a virus that can infect all types of poultry. There are many different strains or types of avian influenza, some are very mild and show no signs of illness, while other types can be very severe with respiratory and nervous system signs and a high death rate in the birds.
This disease has become so important to identify early in order to control outbreaks, that it was also included in the NPIP program. All of South Carolina’s commercial breeders, broilers, turkeys, egg layers are involved in testing their flocks for avian influenza. Other states may also require avian influenza testing of poultry prior to entry into their state.
PULLORUM-TYPHOID TESTING BY AUTHORIZED NPIP TESTING AGENTS
There are 3 different types of blood tests for Pullorum-Typhoid:
The rapid whole blood plate test or “plate test” which can be done in the field, The serum microagglutination test which is done in the laboratory, and The serum tube test which is also done in the laboratory.
Each of these three tests looks for exposure to the diseases by examining blood from the individual birds for the presence of antibodies (part of the body’s immune defense system) against the Pullorum-Typhoid bacteria. The SC Authorized NPIP Testing Agent may perform the rapid whole blood plate test in the field using Pullorum-Typhoid antigen on chicken breeders, game bird breeders, and waterfowl breeders for NPIP Pullorum-Typhoid Clean status, and on all types of exhibition poultry (chickens, turkeys, game birds, and waterfowl) to enter a show. The official test for turkey breeders to be classified as NPIP Pullorum-Typhoid Clean is one of the tests performed at the laboratory and not the field plate test. Blood collected by the Authorized NPIP Testing Agent may be submitted to an approved NPIP laboratory to perform the laboratory test for turkey breeder classification.
In the whole blood test performed in the field, a loop full of blood taken from the wing vein is mixed with a drop of the Pullorum-Typhoid antigen on a glass plate at room temperature. The antigen is dyed purple in order to see the reaction better. The plate is tipped back and forth to continue to mix the blood and antigen. If no antibody is present in the blood, the stained antigen will remain smooth looking for at least 2 minutes. If there is antibody present in the serum, it will stick to the antigen and clump into little islands large enough to be visible within 2 minutes. A bird with a positive test is considered a reactor, but not considered a positive bird until further laboratory testing is performed. Pullorum and Typhoid have similar antigens and either one can be detected with this test. All birds that are tested must be identified with a SC NPIP tamper-proof numbered leg or wing band and recorded on the official Pullorum-Typhoid Testing Report.
Negative Test Positive Test (Reactor bird)
HANDLING PULLORUM-TYPHOID REACTORS
Because birds may have been exposed to other types of Salmonella with similar antigens, all reactors may not be infected with Pullorum or Typhoid and will need further testing. The Authorized NPIP Testing Agent should first redo the rapid whole blood plate test, making sure the testing plate is clean and the antigen has not expired. If the birds still reacts to the plate test, the Agent must assure that all reactors are retained at the farm for additional testing. All reactors will be retested by a SC NPIP State Inspector. If the secondary laboratory blood tests still come back positive, then all reactor birds (maximum 25) must be submitted to the diagnostic laboratory for cultures. If cultures fail to yield Pullorum or Typhoid, the remainder of the flock will be considered negative.
All flocks found to be infected with Pullorum or Typhoid will be quarantined until the infected birds are slaughtered or destroyed.
NPIP PULLORUM-TYPHOID AND AVIAN INFLUENZA TESTING
Testing requirements for NPIP Pullorum-Typhoid Clean:
Testing requirements for NPIP Avian Influenza (AI) Clean:
Individual Official Identification requirements:
The farm and breeding flock will be registered with the NPIP National Office to receive a NPIP Flock Number and listed in the national directory.
The farm will be given an Official Premises ID number with Clemson University Livestock Poultry Health.
New birds or hatching eggs added to the farm from an outside source:
Interstate Movement Form requirements:
.Record keeping requirements:
What happens when a bird tests positive on the Pullorum-Typhoid test?
What happens when a bird tests positive on the Avian Influenza test?
POULTRY GOING TO EXHIBITIONS / SHOWS / FAIRS
In SC: SC state law requires that all SC fowl going to SC exhibits be U.S. Pullorum-Typhoid Clean or each bird has tested negative within the last 90 days. Any out of state poultry coming to a SC exhibit must be U.S. Pullorum-Typhoid Clean or each bird has tested negative within the last 30 days of entry into SC. The exhibit or show rules must require evidence of such status or a negative Pullorum test for each bird with the official testing report and corresponding SC NPIP leg or wing bands. If an Authorized NPIP Testing Agent is present at the exhibition, birds can be tested on arrival at the show. However, if any reactors are found, all the birds from that premise must return to their farm and wait retesting by the NPIP State Inspector.
Birds crossing states lines (coming into SC or leaving SC) to attend an exhibition will need an official movement document, such as a Certification of Veterinary Inspection (CVI) or a NPIP 9-3 Movement form. Copies are sent along with the birds and to Dr. Helm (SC NPIP State Inspector), and you keep a copy for your records. Birds going out-of-state to an exhibition -- you will need to contact the state of destination for their requirements first (http://www.clemson.edu/public/lph/ahp/images/import.pdf).
If you are in charge of setting up a poultry show or exhibition (4-H, breed show, etc.), then you must follow the above and also get an exhibition permit from Clemson University Livestock Poultry Health: 803-726-7805 or www.clemson.edu/public/lph/ahp/permits.html.
RESPONSIBILITIES OF A SC AUTHORIZED NPIP TESTING AGENT
The SC Authorized NPIP Testing Agent must collect the samples, administer the test properly and document the results. These activities can only be performed within the state of South Carolina. If reactors are detected, the Authorized NPIP Testing Agent must be certain that the reactors are retained for re-examination and notify the SC NPIP State Inspector as soon as possible. Notify: SC NPIP State Inspector, 803-788-2260 or 803-260-6442.
BLOOD TESTING FACTS
The following statements should be carefully studied before taking the test to become an Authorized Agent:
1. Pullorum is a disease of poultry that causes high mortality (death) in young birds. It is caused by the bacterium Salmonella pullorum, one of thousands of different Salmonella bacteria. This disease affects only certain species of birds. Like other Salmonella, it is transferred from bird to bird by direct contact, contaminated feed or water, dirty pens, or unsanitary hatchery equipment. In addition, S. pullorum and S. gallinarium (fowl typhoid) may be transmitted from the breeder flock to the offspring through the egg.
2. Antibacterial medication may keep Pullorum or Typhoid infected poultry alive, but the disease has been eradicated only by testing and destroying the infected bird.
3. Blood testing detects birds that have been exposed to the disease. When the disease organism invades a bird, the bird produces antibodies as part of the immune defense against the disease. Blood testing detects birds which have these antibodies.
4. In the rapid whole blood plate test, blood from each bird is mixed with a stained antigen on a glass plate. This antigen is a suspension of killed, stained Pullorum organisms. If antibodies are present in the blood, the antigen will stick to them (agglutinate) and little clumps of stained bacteria will be seen within 2 minutes. Turkey breeders must be bled and the serum sent to the laboratory for an official test.
5. A bird which shows a positive reaction is called a “reactor”. Reactors should be retained and tested at the laboratory to determine if indeed Pullorum is present.
6. If a reactor is found, notify the SC NPIP State Inspector at Clemson Livestock-Poultry Health, PO Box 102406, Columbia, SC 29224; phone (803) 788-2260. An investigation will be made according to state law.
7. Fowl typhoid, caused by Salmonella gallinarium, is detected by the same testing antigen. The laboratory can determine whether the organism is Pullorum or Typhoid by culturing the bird’s organs.
8. In order for a breeder flock to become “U.S. Pullorum-Typhoid Clean”, initially all poultry on the premise must test Pullorum-Typhoid negative. To keep this classification, the breeding stock and setters must be tested every year.
9. SC birds going to a SC show or exhibit must be “U.S. Pullorum-Typhoid Clean” or tested negative within 90 days prior to arrival at the exhibit. Birds must be banded with a tamper proof SC NPIP leg or wing band and the band numbers recorded on the official Pullorum-Typhoid Testing Report. Birds from outside the state must have an interstate veterinary health certificate (CVI) or an official Pullorum-Typhoid Testing Report showing Pullorum Clean status or negative test within 30 days. Each bird must be identified by an official NPIP tamper-proof, numbered leg band.
SC AUTHORIZED NPIP TESTING AGENT SELF TEST
1. Pullorum disease has been eradicated in most poultry flocks through:
(a) medication, (b) vaccination, (c) blood testing.
2. The organism that causes Pullorum disease is a:
(a) virus, (b) bacterium, (c) protozoa.
3. Pullorum is a Salmonella: (a) True, (b) False
4. The Pullorum Clean test used for turkey breeders is the: (a) whole blood plate test, (b) laboratory test
5. Fowl typhoid reacts to the same test as Pullorum: (a) True, (b) False
6. A positive rapid whole blood plate test should react within:
(a) 2 seconds, (b) 2 minutes, (c) 2 hours.
7. A positive reaction on the plate test indicates that:
(a) the bird is confirmed positive of having Pullorum or Typhoid,
(b) the bird may have been exposed to Pullorum or Typhoid,
(c) the bird should be treated with antibiotics.
8. On detecting a reactor you should:
(a) euthanize the bird, bury it and not tell anyone,
(b) retain the bird and notify the SC NPIP State Inspector,
(c) depopulate the entire flock and sanitize the premises.
9. The Pullorum-Typhoid testing antigen is a suspension of:
(a) stained live Pullorum cells,
(b) stained killed Pullorum cells,
(c) Pullorum positive chicken serum.
10. All poultry type birds crossing state lines or going to exhibition must be Pullorum tested negative or from a Pullorum Clean premise, except for pigeons and doves who do not get Pullorum Disease.
(a) True, (b) False
11. Poultry moving into SC for immediate slaughter must be U.S. Pullorum Clean or tested within 90 days: (a) True, (b) False
12. Baby poultry or hatching eggs have nothing to do with the National Poultry Improvement
Plan (NPIP): (a) True, (b) False
13. South Carolina is a Pullorum-Typhoid _____ State: (a) Controlled, (b) Modified Clean,
14. SC NPIP Testing Agents may perform the plate test in any state in the U.S. (a) True, (b) False
CORRECT ANSWERS TO SELF TEST
1. (c) Blood testing and elimination of bird reactors over the years has eradicated Pullorum from most poultry flocks.
2. (b) Salmonella pullorum is a bacterium.
3. (a) Pullorum is Salmonella pullorum.
4. (b) Turkey breeders must be tested in the laboratory and not using the field plate test.
With appropriate training, Authorized Testing Agents may take the blood from the turkeys and submit it to the laboratory with appropriate forms for Pullorum testing.
5. (a) Pullorum and Typhoid have some identical antigens and can be tested with the same bottle of antigen.
6. (b) Agglutination or clumping after 2 minutes is considered a negative test.
7. (b) A reaction indicates antibodies are present, but not necessarily an active infection.
8. (b) The NPIP State Inspector enforces the Pullorum regulations. Further testing will be performed to see if the bird is truly infected with Pullorum-Typhoid.
9. (b) The antigen is stained purple to see the reaction better. The Salmonella bacteria is killed and is of no danger of infecting poultry if spilled.
10. (a) Poultry (except pigeons and doves) going to exhibition or crossing state lines must be tested negative or classified under the NPIP as U.S. Pullorum-Typhoid Clean.
11. (b) Poultry moving into the state for immediate slaughter require no interstate health certificate or Pullorum test.
12. (b) All baby poultry or hatching eggs produced in the state for sale or moved into the state must be U.S. Pullorum-Typhoid Clean or equivalent.
13. (c) South Carolina has laws that allow it to qualify as a U.S. Pullorum Clean State.
14. (b) Authorized SC NPIP Testing Agents are only allowed to perform their activities within the State of South Carolina.
NPIP/BIOSECURITY WORKSHOP AGENDA
SATURDAY, August 4, 2018
9:00am Purpose of Small Flock Certification Program: Dr. Mickey Hall
Premise ID & SC Ag Watch Program: Dr. Julie Helm
National Poultry Improvement Flock Certification, Dr. Julie Helm
Tester Certification, and NPIP Video: Dr. Julie Helm
Hands-on Lab – Pullorum Testing & Banding Drs. Hall and Helm
Biosecurity: Dr. Mickey Hall
Avian Influenza and What to do when there is a disease outbreak: Dr. Julie Helm
Wrap-up/Questions/Evaluation: Dr. Julie Helm, Dr. Mickey Hall
5:00pm Have a Safe Trip Home
Break snacks and lunch are included as well as Notebook with all Written Materials
SATURDAY, AUGUST 04, 2018
The charge for the small Flock Program to cover expenses for lunch, breaks and materials is $75. Advance registration is necessary. Registration must be received by Monday July 30, 2018. Registration and payment must be received before attending the workshop. Make checks payable in the amount of $75 to Clemson University.
Must be at least 18 years of age. Must have photo ID (to prove that you are the person taking exam!) Must bring reading glasses if you have difficulty reading close up or at a distance.
IMPORTANT: We must have advance registration for the NPIP/Biosecurity workshop because you will need study materials before the workshop. For questions concerning the workshop, please contact one of following:
Dr. Mickey Hall Dr. Julie Helm email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
NPIP/BiosecurityWorkshop ($75 charge) __________
PLEASE PRINT CLEARLY OR TYPE
CITY _____________________ STATE _______ ZIP________
PLEASE RETURN THE COMPLETED FORM BY MONDAY, JULY 30, 2018. MAKE CHECKS PAYABLE TO CLEMSON UNIVERSITY. MAIL REGISTRATION FORM WITH CHECK/MONEY ORDER TO:
DR. MICKEY HALL
ANIMAL & VETERINARY SCIENCES DEPARTMENT
138 POOLE AGRICULTURAL CENTER
CLEMSON, SC 29634-0311
Saturday, August 4 at 8:30am to 5:00pm
Poultry Environmental Center on the Clemson University Morgan Poultry Center. Old Cherry Road, Clemson SC