Subcritical fluids under compression above their boiling points continue to find increasing application in the extraction and/or reactive processing of natural products. Subcritical water and alcohols offer not only adjustable extraction selectivity, but also the ability to convert post-extraction residues to fuels and value-added products, or to simultaneously tailor the compositions of extracts via selective reaction chemistry.
The optimization of processing conditions for biomass conversion is substrate-dependent and can be rationalized for biomass containing different levels of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Solubility-parameter calculations can be used to determine reaction conditions, and solute-solvent miscibility is required to transform biomaterial feedstocks into renewable fuels. Selection of depolymerization and/or hydrolysis conditions is highly dependent on the molecular composition of the starting material as derived from agricultural crops or forestry residues. Pretreatment of the above substrates with carbonated or sulfurous water can aid in subsequent extraction and bioconversion processes, such as the preparation of cellulose-containing biomass for hydrolytic or enzymatic saccharification. The subcritical water–polyflavonoid system is an excellent model system with which to demonstrate the effect of temperature on solute reactivity and composition of the final extract and will be the focus of this presentation.
Dr. Jerry Wayne King has been a Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas for the past seven years. Prior to joining the University of Arkansas, he was Program Manager/Research Scientist in the Supercritical Fluid Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and was also the Lead Scientist of the Critical Fluid Technology Group at the National Centre for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR) in Peoria, Illinois. Dr. King graduated from Butler University with a B.S. in Chemistry and received his Ph.D. from Northeastern University in Boston. He has authored over 261 publications in SFE, SFC, and related separation techniques. He serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Supercritical Fluids, Italian Journal of Food Science, Journal of the American Oil Chemical Society. Dr. King was selected for a Marie Curie Chair by the European Union in Brussels, Belgium in 2004. He is a Fellow of the American Oil Chemists’ Society and of the Industrial & Engineering Division of the American Chemical Society.
Dr. King has over 45 years of experience in supercritical fluid technology, chemical separations, chromatography, and applied chemical engineering & chemistry. His research interests include the development of critical fluid technology for food and agro-material processing, materials science, and analytical applications.
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